Classical Level Versus Quantum Level of Reality
Take a look at the picture?
What do you see?
Research has shown that young children cannot identify the intimate couple because they do not have prior memory associated with such a scenario.
Children see nine dolphins!
Right or Left?
Mona Lisa Smile
Mona Lisa’s captivating smile is perhaps the most renowned art mystery of all time. Margaret Livingstone, a neurobiologist at Harvard Medical School, showed that Mona Lisa’s smile appears and disappears due to different visual processes used by the brain to perceive information in the center versus the periphery of our vision. Look directly at Mona Lisa’s lips and notice that her smile is very subtle, virtually absent. Now look at her eyes, or at the part in her hair, while paying attention to her mouth. Her smile is now much wider. The movement of our eyes as we gaze around Mona Lisa’s face make her smile come alive, flickering on and off from perception. The center and periphery of the visual field have this differential effect on perception because the neurons at the center of our vision see a very small portion of the world, giving us high resolution vision. Conversely, the neurons in the periphery see much larger pieces of the visual scene and thus have lower resolution.
Illusion can be defined as a situation where the sensory input remains constant but perceptual interpretations alternate between different possibilities. The ambiguous state mimics the superposition of states in quantum mechanics. In addition, coming to one percept versus the other follows the state reduction principle in QM. The experiment performed by Elio Conte et al from University of Bari- Italy revealed strong evidence that mental states follow quantum mechanics during perception and cognition of ambiguous figures.
There are many optical illusion drawings that questions the reliability of our senses. The Duck-Rabbit illusion creates mutually exclusive perceptual states. Most people by focusing on the right corner of the page (right visual field) see a rabbit, whereas those focusing on the left side of the page (left visual field) see a duck. This demonstrates how perceptions may differ based on the observer’s focus.
Likewise, in quantum mechanics, the result of state reduction depends on the sort of measurement we elect to make. A more revealing test of different percepts is the Spinning Dancer, created by Web designer Nobuyuki Kayahara ( “The Spinning Dancer,” 2010). Because it depicts a woman dancing, the picture appeals to the artistic hemisphere (right hemisphere); therefore, most people originally perceive the dancer spinning clockwise. However, if one starts reading some sentences, activating the reading hemisphere (left hemisphere), one perceives the dancer spinning counterclockwise. Alternatively, if one turns his head so that the picture moves to the left visual field (seen by right hemisphere), the dancer starts to spin clockwise. And if we think about something serious (activating the thinker hemisphere), we perceive that the dancer changing her spin to counterclockwise.
The Spinning Dancer can be considered to be in a “superposition of spins,” and its only our perception that results in a definite direction to her spin. Illusions can be found for auditory and olfactory percepts as well.
Sensory illusions cast doubt in the accuracy of our perceptions. Transitions from one percept to its alternative are called perceptual reversals. Reversal rates have been found to be slower for people with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder). John D. Pettigrew and Steven M. Miller suggest that clinical manifestations of bipolar disorder may be explained by hemispheric activation being "stuck" on the left (mania) or on the right (depression) (Gazzaniga 2009).
According to the classical perception/quantum perception paradox the perceptual reversal may be the determining factor. As mentioned above, the observer/experimenter intervention changes the superposition of states to just one state, as observed by experiment result. For example, in quantum mechanics, particles are known to spin around all possible axes simultaneously. In addition, a particle rotates clockwise and counterclockwise concurrently (Greenstein and Zajong 1997, 157). This concept is very strange to our classical perception; it sounds illogical and impossible. However, quantum theory, the most precise knowledge obtained by human beings, confirms its validity. When the experimenter sends a photon as a probe to assess the particle, its spin, which was in superposition of many spins around all possible axes, is reduced to just one spin—the one around the trajectory of the sent photon—and its superposed rotation is reduced to only one rotation, either clockwise or counterclockwise. Again, how can an observer change the actual spin of a particle? Is it actually changing, or is the observer just focusing on rotation around just one axis, the one in line with the trajectory of the photon he sent towards the particle?
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